THE HUMAN TRAINING CENTRIFUGE GENERATES RAPID ONSET RATES AND SUSTAINED G-FORCES, TYPICAL FOR THOSE OF MODERN HIGH-PERFORMANCE FIGHTER AIRCRAFT AND PROVIDES EFFICIENT TRAINING FOR AN INDIVIDUAL STUDENT IN A HIGHLY RELIABLE AND SAFE ENVIRONMENT
AIR FORCES FACE A SERIOUS DILEMMA BETWEEN THE NEED TO CONSERVE BUDGETS, THE FATIGUE LIFE OF COSTLY FRONT LINE AIRCRAFT AND THE ESSENTIAL DEMANDS FOR HIGH-G PILOT TRAINING. THE HTC IS NOW AN ESSENTIAL INVESTMENT IN THE FUTURE OF TODAY'S MODERN AIR FORCE.
Modern fighter aircraft that are currently in operation impose high requirements on G-tolerance and G-protection of the aircrew.
Increasing performance in terms of engine power, airspeed, manoeuvrability, electronic equipment and structural integrity results in the fact that the pilot is becoming more and more a limiting factor in respect to his physiological and psychological tolerance to mission stress and work load.
High agile fighter aircraft of the latest generation are capable of performing super manoeuvres with rapid, multi-axes motions and have significant advantage and superiority in air combat manoeuvres.
However, they will expose the pilots to new combinations of high translational accelerations and rotational motions, leading to further increased physical loads.
Air combat requires pilots to undertake complex system management tasks and make quick decisions under intense physical stress. The current ground simulators, used for pre-flight training, provide pilot cognitive skill training but they have a negative training value in not replicating the physiological environment. This major training shortcoming is most serious in preparing pilots for air combat where the aircraft will be aggressively manoeuvred imposing significant strains on pilot and aircraft.
G-induced Loss of Consciousness (G-LOC) has been a continuing threat in tactical fighter operations and is still one of the most frequent causes of fatal aircraft mishaps.
Pilots need to possess an adequate degree of mandatory skills for protective, anti-G straining muscular and breathing techniques, anti-G suit exploitation and self-control procedures.
MODERN HTC TRAINING IMPROVES BOTH AIR COMBAT CAPABILITIES AND FLYING SAFETY. THE HTC HAS TRADITIONALLY BEEN USED FOR PILOT SELECTION, QUALIFICATION AND REFRESHER TRAINING. NOW THE HTC BEGINS TO BE AN INTEGRAL PART OF MODERN AIR FORCE TRAINING SYSTEMS.
Combining new simulation technology with advanced human centrifuge engineering provides a very cost effective approach to prepare pilots for the mental and physical demands for air combat within visual range. Modern centrifuges reduce Coriolis effects, have good visual displays, and can provide combined cognitive skill and physical capabilities training. Advanced centrifuge systems provide comprehensive, realistic air combat training in a simulator.
The initial exposure to the impact of G was traditionally gained only when flying commenced. In a HTC, students can become used to operating at their peak capacity much earlier than previously. Any student problems can be revealed early and addressed before significant flying has taken place.
Demonstrations of rapid G-onset to Loss of Consciousness with associated symptoms cannot be carried out in an aircraft. It is essential for flying safety that air combat pilots know how to protect themselves against this characteristic of the human anatomy.
With a HTC, G-resistance and G-tolerance can be achieved earlier than it would occur if using only flying training. This leads to a more effective training.
HTC training can provide an early identification of unsuitable candidates for fast jet training.
Continuation training using a HTC incorporating sophisticated medical monitoring equipment can provide early indication of any emerging pilot physical problems that could lead to accidents if experienced airborne.
HTC training allows pilots to build and maintain their abilities to withstand high-G even if aircraft are G-limited, or the current training regime does not permit it.
Current ground instruction builds only cognitive skills. HTC training can build combined cognitive skills and physiological capabilities.
Pilots can be much more proficient at managing complex aircraft systems while under high-G after suitable HTC instruction in anti-G straining and breathing techniques.
Pilots can be trained for high-G manoeuvres in a safe environment, where their mental and physical performance can be continuously monitored. Corrective instruction can be provided immediately if any shortcomings become evident. This cannot be done airborne.
New air combat aircraft allow complex manoeuvres across combined G-forces. HTC training can replicate this better, preparing pilots for unusual physical stresses not encountered during initial flying training.
SAVES LIVES - SAVES BUDGET
Improves pilot performance, builds G-resistance and G-tolerance in a safe environment, re-establishes and maintains pilots’ optimum performance levels.
G-awareness training in closed-loop using simulated aircraft configuration during target tracking and simulation of typical combat and missile avoidance manoeuvres.
Execution of tactical tasks in high-G environment has more real operational benefit than any other training system.
Download of Basic Fighter Manoeuvres (BFM) from frontline aircraft is a considerable cost saving factor and conserves fatigue life on costly front line aircraft.
One training centrifuge costs much less than one modern fighter aircraft and provides an environment-friendly and cost-effective training of aircrew.
HTC training allows the pilot to re-establish and maintain his optimum performance level even when flights are not possible.
Most Modern HTC including DFS capabilities and CGFs
MODERN HTC DESIGN REQUIRES HIGHEST RELIABILITY AND SAFETY
STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY - DESIGN CRITERIA
Structural design is guaranteed for 30 years life time based on static strength and fatigue strength assessment, dynamic analysis (vibrations) and application of advanced materials (CFRS, special Aluminium alloys and steel).
MAIN DRIVE SYSTEM - DIRECT DRIVES
AMST has a long experience how to control and operate direct drives, DC or AC motors with capacities from three to 36 MW. In addition, we also offer motor gearbox solution or hydraulic motors. In case of power shortage or many power failures during daytime, we recommend the installation of a flywheel generator.
HTC arm - roll and pitch system
The design of high performance HTCs requires a mass optimised arm and gondola system. The arm shall be a high strength steel structure, the gondola of high strength CFRS material to reduce the rotating mass, without neglecting the fatigue behaviour.
GONDOLA EQUIPMENT – Enables HIGHEST FLEXIBILITY
The gondola equipment provides the highest flexibility for the user to adapt for future needs. It gives the pilot the look like feeling similar to his working environment and ensures a quick change of the different cockpits.
The control stations have ergonomic design and are equipped with all devices to control and monitor the HTC, the pilot, and to ensure that all data (audio, video, medical, and technical) are time synchronous recorded and available for debriefing.
MODES OF OPERATION
The HTC control system provides the user with maximum possible flexibility under different operation modes such as pre-programmed mode, active mode, DFS mode with/without CGFs and a manual mode for maintenance tasks.
Safety has to be the highest priority for the pilot and for the machine. The safety system fulfils international standards (MIL, DEF and EU).
MEDICAL MONITORING SYSTEM - MMS
The MMS has digital Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) transmission technology and uses state-of-the art sensor- and amplifier technology. All required biomedical parameters are measured, recorded and available for debriefing.
AMST can provide soil tests and soil report at the site, where the HTC will be installed; structural engineering and design of HTC foundation including detailed drawings for the reinforcement and earthen system; basic building architectural design; building engineering drawings, building construction and construction supervision.
INTEGRATED LOGISTIC SUPPORT - ILS
It is the aim of the AMST ILS team to support customers during the lifetime of the equipment to achieve the operational requirements, in particular operational availability greater than 95 % with affordable life cycle costs. AMST can provide different levels of maintenance up to a careless package.
SOFTWARE CONTROLLED ANTI-G VALVE
The software-controlled anti-G valve can be installed instead of the anti-G valve as in the real aircraft. It has three independent supplies for trousers, mask and vest. Cut-in point, slope and ratio for each supply can be predefined. No ITAR approval is required.
High Level Architecture (HLA) interface to the AMST SD trainer to conduct joint training. Each simulator and its instructor act as a player and control a target aircraft. Ability to conduct basic air combat engagements against each other. Enables network compatibility between other simulators.
SINCE 2005 AMST HAS SUCCSESSFULLY DEVELOPED, MANUFACTURED, INSTALLED AND COMMISSIONED SEVEN HTCs. ALL OF THEM IN OPERATION WITH AN OPERATIONAL AVAILABILITY OF MORE THAN 95 %. GO – SEE – AND ASK OUR CUSTOMERS!
HTC VIII - POLAND 2011
The contract for the HTC was signed in October 2008. AMST was responsible for the HTC and for the soil tests, the building architectural design, building engineering and construction supervision. The whole facility with the HTC was handed over in October 2011. The HTC was a newly developed system and represents the today’s highest technical specification available.
HTC VII - UPGRADE - APRL GANGSHAN 2010
The contract for the repair and upgrade of the existing Latecoere HTC was signed in June 2009. Handover was in December 2010. The programme comprises the repair and overhaul of the hydraulic drive system for the main, roll- and pitch drives, installation of new control stations, control software, TSMU and recording/debriefing system.
HTC VI - SINGAPORE 2010
Contract awarded in November 2007 and handover was in October 2010 during ICASM. The new HTC is the replacement for the ETC’s HTC installed in 1998. The contract comprises the modification of the existing foundation to make it waterproof and to use the same power supply. The new HTC had to be installed in the existing building at the RSAF Aeromedical Centre.
HTC V - INDIA 2008
The contract for the HTC was signed in March 2005, handover was in June 2008. The contract included the delivery of the HTC, building design, engineering, construction and construction supervision, a turnkey project. The HTC is installed at the Indian Air Force Institute of Aerospace Medicine in Bangalore.
HTC IV - RUSSIA II 2007
In February 2005 the new owner of the HTC decided to replace the former RUSSIA I HTC by a new one with more advanced parameters for training use only. In addition, minor modifications on the existing foundation were carried out. The new system was installed end of 2006 and handed over in July 2007.
HTC I - UPGRADE – GERMANY 2006
In 2003, the GAF planned to replace the HTC by a new one. Based on the results of the structure monitoring system, AMST could extend the lifetime for another 30 years. The contract was then awarded in 2003; the handover of the modified HTC was in 2006. The onset rate was increased from 5 to 10 G/s, maximum G from 12 to 15 G.
HTC III - P.R. OF CHINA 2005
In December 2000 AMST awarded a contract from the P.R. of China for a HTC, including soil tests, building design and building construction supervision. The handover was in August 2005. The building and the HTC is installed at the Beijing Institute of Aviation Medicine.
HTC II - RUSSIA I 1993
The contract awarded in June 1989. It was the biggest contract AMST has ever signed. AMST was responsible for the design and production for the HTC, a completely new development, and for the building design. The contract was finished in 1993. The HTC was installed at the LII - GROMOV Flight Research Institute in Zhukovsky and used for research.
HTC I - GERMANY 1986
The first contract for a HTC was signed in December 1982. The HTC had to be newly developed. Handover was in March 1986. Design life specified for 20 years. The HTC is installed at the Flight Physiological Training Centre in Königsbrück near Dresden. In 2001 after the unification of Germany, the institute was taken over by the German Air Force (GAF).