AGSM

Anti-G Straining Manoeuvres Trainer

Needs

THE MOST SENSITIVE AREAS TO ACCELERATION FORCES ARE THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, THE PULMONARY SYSTEM AND THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • A simplified explanation for the occurrence of G-force induced Loss of Consciousness (G-LOC) are rapidly increasing and sustained +Gz loads, acting on the human body, hindering the heart to maintain the blood circulation to the head. The result is an insufficient oxygen supply of the brain, maintenance of venous return to the heart and the maintenance of blood pressure and blood flow to the brain.
  • Consequences of G-LOC are that many aircrew who experience G-LOC fail to report it and the G-LOC accident statistics rely on pilot reporting and may under-represent the problem. G-LOC causes severe damages and loss of lives and leads to annual Air Force material losses of several hundred million Euros.
  • As +Gz level increases from +1 to +5 Gz the eye-level blood pressure is significantly lower than the heart blood pressure. Due to the eye-to-heart distance, the eye-level blood pressure decreases to a value resulting in G-LOC, if no intervention is made.
  • Such interventions are wearing an anti-G-suit and performing Anti-G Straining Manoeuvres

Needs

Benefits

AGSM TRAINING IMPROVES THE PILOT’s SAFETY DURING HIGH-G MANOEUVRES AND WAS DEVELOPPED TOGETHER WITH THE EXPERTS OF THE GERMAN AIR FORCE FLIGHT PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAINING CENTRE IN KÖNIGSBRÜCK.

  • AGSM training significantly increases the blood pressure to ensure blood circulation to the brain.
  • Experience shows that exercising and repeating of AGSM will be improved, if the conventional training methods like explaining, demonstrating, repeating and exercising are supported by visual aids.
  • Isometric straining of leg buttocks and arm muscles hinder the venous pooling of the blood, the simultaneous straining of the stomach muscles increases the abdominal cavity pressure, and special breathing techniques increase the lung pressure.
  • These different exercises are ‘un-physiological’, physically strenuous and cause additional attention to the pilots.
  • It is a training device in order to learn via bio-feedback technology, how to perform appropriate breathing techniques in combination with straining of leg muscle, how to perform Positive Pressure Breathing technique (PPB) under simulated +Gz using the anti-G suit with reduced pressure via a software controlled anti-G valve and how to communicate under PPB.
  • It is a monitoring device to monitor the leg forces versus time, to verify the effectiveness of muscle training, the blood pressure before, during and after AGSM training, breathing curve and breathing frequency, pressure versus time within trousers, vest and mask, ECG, pulse, EMG, pressure (Thorax), blood flow and the forces on stick input in x- and y-direction.

Benefits

Features

Designed for easy operation

Training Device

Training Device

The training device has a software controlled anti-G valve including PPB. Values of cut-in point, slopes and ratios can be selected via the GUI. Additionally, an audio communication system, video recording system, a pressurised air supply, a computer system and the safety system are installed.
Generic Cockpit

Generic Cockpit

The generic cockpit includes a generic seat, a spring loaded centre stick and a throttle. The seat is vertically adjustable. The correct position of the seat is stored together with the student bio data.
Force Measurement

Force Measurement

The rudder pedals including force measurement for each leg are horizontally adjustable and controlled by an electric drive via pre-programmed force versus time profiles. The pedals react on a displacement if the pilot is not able to balance these forces and to keep the pedals in the zero position.
Medical Monitoring and Sensor System

Medical Monitoring and Sensor System

Medical measurement and recording system has 16 channels. Sensors for forces are installed in the rudder panel and on the centre stick. In addition, sensors for length measurement for the rudder and seat position, sensors for system pressure, as well as pressure in trousers, vest and mask. Force sensors for stick input in x- and y-direction.
Control Station

Control Station

The control station consists of three sections:
The medical monitoring section
The recording and debriefing section and
The control section including Technical Subsystem Monitoring Unit - TSMU.
Software

Software

The control software controls the whole functionality of the simulator. The profile editor creates different force versus time profiles - simulated G-profiles. Storage and recall of these profiles for debriefing. Input of time intervals for the rhythm to exercise appropriate breathing and muscle straining technique. Monitoring of medical parameters.
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References

AGSM - Austria 2013

AGSM - Austria 2013

In 2013, AMST installed the device at their facility for demonstration and further development.
AGSM - Germany 2003

AGSM - Germany 2003

In 2002, AMST awarded the contract. Installation was in 2003 and the AGSM is still in operation. It is used for student pilots learning the AGSM techniques before going for HTC training.